GAMSAT Biology The Cell


GAMSAT Biology The CellRe: GAMSAT Biology The Cell
Cell theory

The cell theory explains the observation that organisms are composed of cells.  This theory includes the following three principles:

1. All organisms are made of one or more cells. Life processes occur in these cells.

2. Cells are the basic units of organisation in all organisms.

3. A cell can only arise by division of a previously existing cell.

Cell size
Cells are relatively small for a number of reasons related to diffusion in and out of the cell. A small cell is advantageous in terms of the surface area to volume ratio. A smaller, flatter cell with a large SA:V ratio will be more efficient in diffusion and removal of wastes. As a cell gets larger its volume increases at a faster rate than its surface area (lower SA:V ratio). A larger, rounder cell will have less efficient diffusion and removal of wastes.

Visualisation of cells
Many cells are not visible to the naked eye. In order to visualise the microscopic cells we need to use microscopy.

Types of microscopes
The aim of microscopy is to increase magnification so that cells can appear larger. Types of microscopes used in biology include:

Light microscope:
– Operate using visible light

– First lens focuses image onto second lens. Image is magnified and the image is focused on the back of the eye.

– Microscopes that magnify using multiple lenses are called compound microscopes.

– Able to resolve structures that are at least 200 nm apart.

Electrons have a much shorter wavelength and an electron microscope that uses electrons (instead of visible light) has 1000 x the resolving power than a light microscope.

Transmission electron microscope:
– Electrons transmitted through material

– Resolve images 0.2 nm apart
Scanning electron microscope:
– Beams electrons on the surface of the specimen. Electrons reflect back from the surface and other electrons from the specimen are released from the bombardment.

– Electrons are amplified and transmitted to a screen. A 3D image is produced.

Chemical stains can be used to increase the contrast between different components of the cell. Some structures either absorb or exclude the dye and this produces contrast that aids resolution.

Cell structure
There are 4 major features that all cells have in common. These include:
Nucleoid or nucleus: Genetic material is located here.

Every cell contains DNA. Prokaryotes are the simplest organisms and contain a circular molecule of DNA. This DNA is found in the center of the cell in the region called the nucleoid. Eukaryotes are more complex organisms and their DNA is found in the nucleus. A double membrane called the nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus.

Cytoplasm:
The cytoplasm is the semi-fluid matrix that fills the interior of the cell. The cytoplasm contains all of the amino acids, proteins and sugars that are essential to the cell.

Ribosomes:
Protein synthesis occurs at the ribosomes.

Plasma membrane:
The plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded into it. The plasma membrane encloses the cell and separates the internal component of the cell with the environment.

Types of proteins in plasma membrane:
– Transport proteins: Help ions and molecules move across the plasma membrane. Movement occurs either in or out of the cell.

– Receptor proteins: Bring about changes within the cell when the receptors come in contact with molecules such as hormones.

Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes are small and are the simplest organisms. They have a plasma membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm. The plasma membrane is surrounded by a rigid cell wall. The rigid cell wall brings strength to the cell.

In prokaryotes the enzymes, DNA and other cellular constituents are not membrane-bound like they are in eukaryotes. Instead they have access to the entire interior of the cell.

The two main domains of prokaryotes are bacteria and archaea.

Bacteria: Bacterial cells have a cell wall that consists of peptidoglycan. The cell wall maintains the shape of the cell, protects the cell, and prevents excessive loss or uptake of water. Bacteria can also have an extra protective capsule that surrounds the cell wall.

Remember: Bacteria are often susceptible to antibiotics because the antibiotics affect the constitution of the cell wall.

Archaea: Archaea are difficult to culture and thus have not been studied in detail. Archaea have pseudopeptidoglycan in their cell wall.

Some prokaryotes have rotating flagella that enable movement. Flagella are protein fibers that extend from the cell and some cells may have one or more of these.

Eukaryotes
Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells. They contain organelles that are membrane-bound structures that form compartments. Biochemical processes take place within each compartment.

Eukaryotes have a nucleus that contains DNA. DNA is wrapped into compact units called chromosomes within the nucleus. The nucleus is responsible for the synthesis of nearly all proteins in the living cell.

Most eukaryotes have one nucleus, but some fungi may have multiple nuclei. A nucleolus is a region in the nucleus in which synthesis of ribosomal RNA is taking place.

Chromosomes are composed of chromatin (DNA and protein complex). The DNA is wrapped around histones to form a nucleosome.

The nuclear envelope surrounds the surface of the nucleus in eukaryotes. It has two phospholipid bi-layer membranes. The nuclear envelope has pores that allow for the movement of proteins into the nucleus and for the exportation of RNA complexes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

Ribosomes are the cell’s protein synthesis machinery. Ribosomes translate mRNA to produce polypeptides. Polypeptides form proteins.

Eukaryotic cells have a cytoskeleton, which is an internal protein scaffold.

Fungi and plants have cell walls, whilst animals do not have cell walls.

Endomembrane system
The interior of a cell contains an endomembrane system. The role of this system is to allow for the channeling of molecules through the interior of the cell and provide surfaces for the synthesis of some proteins and lipids. This system contains rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER).

The rough endoplasmic reticulum is the site for protein synthesis. It is studded with ribosomes and synthesises and modifies proteins.

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks ribosomes, but still has multiple roles. It is involved in lipid and carbohydrate synthesis.

The Golgi apparatus sorts and packages proteins. It receives vesicles from the ER and then modifies, repackages and transports them.

Lysosomes are also components of the endomembrane system in eukaryotes. They contain digestive enzymes that break down molecules and recycle the components of old organelles.

Mitochondria and chloroplasts
Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own DNA and have a double membrane structure.

The function of mitochondria is to metabolise sugar to generate ATP. The mitochondria have a highly folded inner membrane that contains proteins. These inner membrane proteins, along with the surface proteins, carry out metabolism to produce ATP.

Chloroplasts utilise light to generate ATP and sugars. The chloroplasts work by capturing light energy via thylakoid membranes arranged in stacks called grana. The light is essential in the process of forming glucose.

Cytoskeleton
The function of the cytoskeleton is to anchor the organelles and support the shape of the cell. It consists of crisscrossed protein fibers. The cytoskeleton can also help move materials within the cell.

Cell Movement
Flagella and cilia aid in the movement of the cell. Flagella arise from a basal body and cilia are shorter and more numerous than flagella.

Fungi
Fungi are eukaryotic organisms. They can be unicellular (yeast) or multicellular (filamentous fungi – mushrooms). Fungi can reproduce both sexually and asexually.

Virus
Viruses are very small obligate intracellular parasites. This means that in order to replicate their genetic material and thus multiply, they must be inside a living cell.

Viruses are considered non-living as they have no cellular structure and cannot carry out their metabolism independently.

Viruses may have DNA or RNA as their genetic material, but they cannot have both. The genetic material of a virus is found in their protein coat, which is termed the capsid.

On a final note, if you would like some free practice GAMSAT questions click the link below:
==> Free GAMSAT Mock Exam

GAMSAT Biology Macromolecules

GAMSAT Biology Macromolecules

If you’ve had a chance to look at the GAMSAT Biology Syllabus, you will notice Macromolecules is a subject that frequently pops up in the GAMSAT Section III.

In this blog post, we will briefly cover Biology Macromolecules below:

The four classes of biological molecules include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.

Carbohydrates

The term carbohydrate refers to both sugars and their polymers. Students should be aware of the following terms for the GAMSAT.

Monosaccharides: are the simplest carbohydrates and are also known as single sugars. Glucose is a common monosaccharide and is a major nutrient for cells. Cells extract the energy stored in the glucose molecule by a process known as cellular respiration.

Disaccharides: are double sugars that consist of two monosaccharides. Maltose is a disaccharide formed by the linking of two molecules of glucose.

Polysaccharides: can be storage polysaccharides or structural polysaccharides.

Starch: a storage polysaccharide of plants and is stored as granules in chloroplasts. Starch represents stored energy and can later be withdrawn by hydrolysis to provide the plant with energy. Animals store glucose as glycogen in the liver and muscle cells. The comparable molecule to starch in animals is glycogen. Starch is a polymer of alpha-glucose.

Cellulose: a common structural polysaccharide. Cellulose is a polymer of Beta-glucose and is found in plant cell walls.

Chitin: the structural molecules found in fungi and anthropods. It forms a tough, resistant material.

Nucleic acids

Two types of nucleic acids include:

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
DNA is found in the nuclear region of cells and contains the genetic information to create an organism. DNA is found as a double helix structure.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
RNA is identical to DNA, but differs in 3 main ways:

  1. RNA is single stranded.
  2. Carbon number 2 on the pentose of RNA is deoxygenated.
  3. RNA contains uracil instead of thymine.

There are three types of RNA:

mRNA: Messenger RNA delivers the DNA code for amino acids to the cytosol to prepare for the manufacturing of proteins.

rRNA: Ribosomal RNA forms ribosomes by combining with proteins. The ribosomes are responsible for directing the synthesis of proteins.

tRNA: Transfer RNA collects amino acids in the cytosol and transfers them to the ribosomes. At the ribosomes the tRNA is incorporated into the proteins.

REMEMBER: RNA is manufactured from a DNA template.

Nucleic acids
Nucleic acids carry information inside cells and are responsible for the production of a large number of proteins. They are long polymers of repeating subunits called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a pentose sugar, phosphate group and an organic nitrogenous base.

Two types of nitrogenous bases occur in nucleotides:

Purines: Double-bonded rings found in DNA and RNA. The purines include adenine (A) and guanine (G).

Pyrimidines: Single-ring structure. The pyrimidine that is found in both RNA and DNA is cytosine (C). The pyrimidine that is found only in DNA is thymine (T) and the pyrimidine that is only found in RNA is uracil (U).

In a nucleic acid, the nucleotides are linked to each other via phosphodiester bonds. These bonds are formed between the phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of the next nucleotide.

DNA consists of two polynucleotide chains wrapped around each other along a single helical axis. The spiral shaped formed by DNA is termed a double helix. The base pairs on each polynucleotide chain run in opposite directions and are joined by hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous bases.

The following shows base pairing in a DNA double helix:

GAMSAT Biology Macromolecules
The bases that participate in base-pairing are termed complimentary bases. Adenine can pair with thymine (DNA) and with uracil (RNA). Cytosine can only pair with guanine.

DNA (double-stranded) can be transcribed into RNA (single-stranded). DNA stores hereditary information and the RNA uses this information to create proteins via the sequencing of specific amino acids.

Proteins

In terms of the GAMSAT students should know that proteins have many different functions in cells. They can be used in enzyme catalysis, transport, defense, structural support, movement, regulation of genes, and storage of ions.

Proteins are polymers of amino acids. There are 20 amino acids. Proteins fold into different shapes based on their amino acid composition. Cells contain chaperone proteins, which help other proteins fold correctly.

Chaperones have previously come up in the GAMSAT and students should just remember that they assist in the folding of proteins.

If a protein’s environment is altered, the protein may change shape or completely unfold. This is known as denaturation. Proteins can become denatured as a result of changes in pH, ion concentration and temperature. Dentatured proteins are inactive and therefore cannot catalyse reactions.

The Central Dogma of gene expression is that DNA is transcribed to RNA, which is translated to amino acids. Many amino acids link up and form a protein.

Lipids

All lipids are insoluble in water and have a high proportion of non-polar C-H bonds.

Saturated lipids occur when all the internal carbon atoms in a fatty acid chain are bonded to at least two hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated lipids occur when a fatty acid has double (or triple) bonds between their internal carbon atoms.

If a fatty acid has more than one double bond it is termed polyunsaturated.

Most fats contain more than 40 carbon atoms. The fats produced by animals are mostly saturated, whereas plants mostly produce unsaturated fats.

Phospholipids are complex lipid molecules and are important as they form the core of all cell membranes in organisms. A phospholipid can be thought of as a triglyceride with a phosphate group replacing one of the fatty acids.

Glycerol structure should be memorized for the GAMSAT. It is a three-carbon alcohol and each carbon atom contains a hydroxyl group. Glycerol forms the backbone of phospholipid molecules.

Tips for GAMSAT Exam Day

Tips For GAMSAT Exam Day
Re: Tips for GAMSAT Exam Day

  • Bring a jumper just in case.  Even if it’s 30 degrees plus outside, the air-conditioning can be very cold.
  • Moderate amounts of caffeine can boost cognitive performance, meaning 2-3 cups at most on GAMSAT morning.
  • Get enough sleep!  Sleep at least 8 hours the night before the GAMSAT.
  • Do not bring any study notes to the exam. This will only cause stress. Simply relax before the exam.
  • Arrive early – nothing is more stressful than worrying about being on time.
  • Remember your pencils and invest in a good pen for section 2 (this is very important)
  • Pack a nice morning tea and good lunch so you have something to look forward to. Include lots of low GI food for long-lasting energy. Good examples are: Chicken and salad sandwich on multigrain bread, yogurt, fruit and tuna.
  • DO NOT nap in the afternoon in the weeks/days leading up to the exam. It is not good for your body to expect a nap at 3 in the afternoon – because you will be doing S3 at this time.
  • Bring water in a clear bottle (label removed).
    There are also a range of prohibited items that cannot be brought into the GAMSAT Exam. These include a pencil case, notes, colouring pencils, highlighters, scissors, rulers, stopwatches, any kind of books, recording devices (both visual and audio), mobile phone, music players, earphones, and personal clocks.If students are found in possession of any of these items there may be severe consequences. Being found with any of these items is against the rules and students may be disqualified from the GAMSAT examination.On a final note. Stay positive and be confident. Having a positive mindset when approaching the exam can make a big difference in your performance on the day of the GAMSAT exam.

Last of all… If you would like a free section 3 gamsat mock exam then click below to download:

gamsat tips

 

GAMSAT Chemistry Electromagnetic Spectrum

Re: GAMSAT Chemistry Electromagnetic Spectrum

The following table provides important information that is crucial for the GAMSAT. In previous years the GAMSAT has directly tested the knowledge of students. Students were required to identify the color of light that has the longest wavelength or has the highest frequency out of a selected few.

An easy way to remember: Colours of rainbow = ROYGBIV (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet). As you move across from red to violet, the wavelength decreases and the frequency increases.

Important equation to remember: v=c/λ

v (frequency) – number of wavelengths that pass a certain point in space per unit time
c (Speed of light)
λ (wavelength) – the distance between adjacent peaks in an oscillating field

GAMSAT Chemistry Electromagnetic Spectrum

Happy Studying 🙂

The Secret to GAMSAT Success – 4 techniques That Will Ensure Success

Re: The Secret to GAMSAT Success

The Secret to GAMSAT Success

Let’s face it. For most people, studying for the GAMSAT requires long hours of study on a consistent basis for several months. It is so easy to procrastinate and avoid studying until ‘tomorrow’. When you think to yourself “When should I start studying and preparing for the GAMSAT” the answer is NOW!

The 4 techniques that helped me focus on my goals and brought upon my success in the GAMSAT are:

1. Early Study
2. Meditation
3. Affirmations
4. Visualisation

Early study:
Make sure you start studying and practicing all GAMSAT-related material at least 3 months before the GAMSAT exam. Students should aim to study as early in the day as possible.

As soon as you wake up do the 5 following things:
1. Wash face with COLD water
2. Drink a glass of water
3. Eat a light breakfast – Low GI
4. Brush Teeth
5. Stretch to loosen up muscles and increase blood flow

Now it is time for Meditation (3 mins):
Meditation will reduce your stress levels, to begin each day with a kind of calm, clarity, and peace of mind that will allow you to stay focused on what is most important in your life. Starting your day off with meditation will allow you to focus on your goals and priorities.

Find a quiet comfortable place to sit. Sit upright on the ground with legs crossed. You can close your eyes, or you can look down at the ground. Start by focusing on your breath, taking slow, deep breaths. Remember to breath in through your nose and out through your mouth. Breath the surrounding air into your belly, not just your chest. Pace your breath: Breath in for 3 seconds and out for 3 seconds. During this process you will feel your thoughts and emotions settling down as you focus on your breath.

Be aware that as you attempt to quiet your mind, thoughts will still come in to pay a visit. Acknowledge them, then let them go, always returning your focus to your breath.
The aim of meditation is to clear your mind for the following exercises and allow you to have laser-focus on your priorities for the day.

Affirmations (3 mins):
As Mohummad Ali stated – “It’s the repetition of affirmations that leads to belief. Once that belief becomes a deep conviction, things begin to happen.”

When you actively design and write out affirmations to be in alignment with what you want to accomplish, and commit to repeating them daily (out loud) – they will immediately make an impression on your subconscious mind. The affirmations you read out will go to work to transform the way you think and feel so you can overcome your limiting beliefs and behaviors and replace them with those you need to succeed.

You should create your own or tweak the following affirmations to suit your own specific goals. The following affirmations are similar to what I used when preparing for the GAMSAT.

I will put 110% everyday when studying for the GAMSAT. Nothing comes easy in life. I will write essays everyday and receive feedback so that I can improve my skills to the fullest. I will read all the recommended GAMSAT books for S1 and learn all the required S3 GAMSAT content. I am going to be a GAMSAT machine. I will practice all GAMSAT practice questions available until I master them all. I will practice questions under timed conditions so that I can breeze through the exam on the day. I do not care how long it will take, I will continuously put in hard work and will eventually score high enough in the GAMSAT to become a Doctor.

If I do not pass the GAMSAT the first time, will I give up? NO! I will go back and study twice as hard and as twice as long as last time. I will make sacrifices. I will work my hardest to improve on my weakest points and I will eventually SUCCEED.

I will eventually get a high GAMSAT score, no matter how long it takes and I will breeze through the MMI interviews.

I will achieve my dream and become a Doctor.

Visualisation (3 mins):

Visualisation refers to the practice of seeking to generate positive results in your outer world by using your imagination to create mental images of specific behaviors and outcomes occurring in your life. It is the process of imagining exactly what you want to achieve, and then mentally rehearsing what you’ll need to do to achieve it.

Spend 3 minutes listening to some relaxing music. Close your eyes, sit-upright and take a deep breath in and out (holding each for 3 seconds). Visualize yourself preparing for the GAMSAT for many hours each day. You are laser focused and your number one priority is to succeed in the exam. Visualise yourself breezing through the questions in S1 and S3, and writing that perfect, flowing essay. Visualize yourself checking your GAMSAT results and receiving a great score. Imagine yourself breezing through the medical school interviews and then imagine yourself as a Doctor in many years from now. What will you specialize in? Where would you live? What will your day consist of? Will you have a loving wife and many children? Will you be one of the most influential Doctors in the world? How will your parents feel about your success? How will you feel saving lives of people in need? And most of all how would you feel when you look back at all the hard work you put in to achieve this dream of becoming a Doctor?

Hope this helps,

Matt.
AceGAMSAT

GAMSAT Tips

gamsat tips

What GAMSAT Tips should you know?

The greatest advice I can give is that the GAMSAT is a reasoning test, not a knowledge test. Knowledge is required and it must be integrated into the question so that you can come up with a reasoned response. Do not just memorise the topics in physics, chemistry and biology – you must understand the actual concepts.

Time: Finishing on time is one of the hardest things about the GAMSAT. For Section 1 you have an average of 1.3 mins per question and approximately 1.5 mins per question for Section 3. If a question seems too difficult or time consuming just guess and move on to the next question. Do not let difficult questions throw you off for the rest of the test.

Probability: Aim to cross off wrong answers when finding the correct answer. Most times you can cross at least 1 or 2 answers off. This will increase the probability that you make a ‘good’ guess when you are unsure of the correct answer.

Practice: Please do not sit the GAMSAT exam unless you have completed all four of the ACER practice papers.

You can get some practice material here:
Click Here To Get Your Free Mock GAMSAT Practice Test!

GAMSAT Practice Test

Make sure you do at least two of the four papers under timed conditions. Even if you do not completely understand the answers, at least remember them!

In the previous years some questions were repeated directly from section 3 of a practice ACER exam.

Practicing under timed conditions is important so you can get the feel of working under the same conditions of the exam. This will allow you to adjust to the speed in which you must answers questions in the exam.

You may be thinking ‘what Score and GPA combination do I need?’…

Well, I have compiled the Minimum GAMSAT Scores from Students in PagingDr Forums so you can see the estimated scores required to gain acceptance to each University.

Click Here to get your Minimum GAMSAT Scores!

Section I: Humanities and Social Sciences

GAMSAT TIPS FOR SECTION I

Outline:
Multiple-choice with 4 options

Candidates are provided with stimulus material – poem, magazine, novel, newspaper, song, textbook or journal.

Regular reading and practice are the best preparation for this section. An e-book reader is a worthy investment. E-books can easily be downloaded through the Amazon store and unfamiliar words can easily be learnt via the inbuilt dictionary.

Suggested readings:

The Great Gatsby: F. Scott Fitzgerald (If you are not a regular reader you should start with this. An easy read, but still covers some really important concepts).

Defying Hitler: Sebastian Haffner (a tale of being a regular person in pre-NAZI Germany. Provides great examples to many quotes in SII that can be related to war).

English Passengers: Matthew Kneale (circulates around problems that an Aboriginal family are faced with when the British settle in Australia. Also provides great examples for SII).

Oliver Twist: Charles Dickens (Great for honing your language manipulation skills. This book has a lot of difficult words and will prepare you to quickly understand classical texts in the actual GAMSAT. Make sure to look up all words that you are unfamiliar with and write them down).

The Penguin Book of Twentieth Century Essays: Ian Hamilton (collection of the best essays written in the English language during the past one hundred years. It is great at exploring a vast range of ideas that can be used for SII).

A Short History Of Nearly Everything: Bill Bryson (It’s like Intro to Physics, Chemistry, Geology and Astronomy all in one wonderfully droll book).

The Story of My Life: Helen Keller (An amazing story of a deaf and blind woman who achieved so much and experienced so much of life despite her handicaps).

Vocabulary:

A sound vocabulary will be highly beneficial for SI. It will aid in the understanding of texts and can be helpful in crossing off the incorrect multiple-choice answers when in doubt.

An excellent FREE resource to improve vocabulary can be found at vocabulary.com. Get into the routine of completing one mini-test everyday (10 words), which will take less than 5 minutes. Choose the MCAT word list to practice, as this includes words that are commonly found in the GAMSAT SI.

Practice:

Practice is key.

A free site that provides Section-I-like questions is readtheory.org. It will provide detailed feedback for each series of questions.

Work through the two half-length ACER booklets and save the two full length ones for just before the GAMSAT to sit under timed conditions.

I repeat. TIME YOURSELF! You will adapt to working at this pace and with consistency these stimulus questions will become like second nature.

Section II: Written Communication

GAMSAT TIPS FOR SECTION II

Outline:

Candidates are to complete two essays – both task A and task B

Five quotes are provided for each task that surrounds a common theme.

Task A deals with socio-cultural issues and Task B deals with social and personal issues.

A title is recommended for each essay. Be creative! The markers are looking for the best ideas. Ideas are more important than spelling, grammar and punctuation.

The best ideas get the best marks, so planning your essay in the first 5 minutes is the key to success.

Want to see some example Section 2 themes and quotes? Click here to get access to our Free GAMSAT Quote Generator

Suggested readings:

The Meaning of Things by AC Grayling: A great book for generating ideas. It consists of short essays that cover common themes in the GAMSAT. I would suggest reading through 1-2 different topics per day and making sure you really understand what it is talking about. You could even write a couple of sentences about each topic.

AC Grayling’s Essay collection: Find this at www.skeptic.ca/grayling_essays.htm

50 Big Ideas You Really Need to Know by Ben Dupre: A great guide to the most important ideas in history. It covers some of the most influential ideas ever conceived in politics, philosophy, religion, economics, science and the arts.

Reading the newspaper is also important in keeping up to date with socio-cultural issues. I recommend reading the comment section of the Sydney Morning Herald or the Economist. I recommend reading 3 articles per day (less than 15 minutes). For UK candidates read articles at www.telegraph.co.uk and the Irishtimes for Irish candidates.

I highly recommend researching in depth about current events in the world – Ukraine/Russia, Islamic State, Palestine/Israel, Boko Haram, and corruption in Bolivia. Don’t forget WW1/WW2. These events can provide examples for a range of different quotes. A simple youtube/google search can be a good starting point.
TED Talks also provide many great ideas – ted.com

Section III: Reasoning in Biological and Physical Sciences

GAMSAT TIPS FOR SECTION III

Outline:
This section includes biology, general and organic chemistry all at university level, and physics at year 12 level. Overall the exam consists of 40% biology, 40% chemistry and 20% physics.

Candidates are required to use their knowledge and the understanding of concepts in order to answer questions. This section involves the analysis of tables, graphs, charts and scientific information.

Practicing section III under timed conditions is crucial. The ACER booklets provide GAMSAT-like questions. We have released our own database of study books which contains the highest quality questions ever created. Click here to view AceGAMSAT Products.

Once again practice is the key.

Topic List for GAMSAT:

When studying the units in the following list aim to grasp and understand the main concepts rather than just relying on memorisation.

BIOLOGY
Bioenergetics, Blood Composition, DNA, Gametogenesis (Meiosis), Genetics, Lymphatic and Immune Systems, Plasma Membrane, Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, Protein Synthesis, The Cell’s Interior, The Cell Cycle, The Circulatory System, The Digestive System, The Endocrine System,The Eukaryotic Cell, The Excretory System, The Nervous System, The Neuron, Viruses

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Acetals/Ketals, Alkenes, Amides, Amino Acids, Aromatic Rings, Carboxylic Acids, Elimination, Elimination and Substitution, Free Radicals, IUPAC Nomenclature, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Principles of Reaction Mechanisms, Protein Structure, Redox Reactions, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Substitution, The Carbonyl Group, The Tetrahedryl Intermediate

GENERAL CHEMISTRY
Acids and Bases, Avogadro’s Law, Boiling, Boiling, Calorimetry, Chemical Bonds, Electrochemical Cell, Electrolysis, Energy Diagrams, Equation of State, Freezing Point Changes, Gases, Graham’s Law, Hess’s Law, Hybridization, Hybrid Orbitals, Hydrogen Bonds, Ionic and Covalent Bonds, Le Chatelier’s Principle, Lewis Dot Structures, Liquids, Melting Points, Molecular Polarity, Multiple Bonds, Oxidation Numbers, Phase Diagrams, Raoult’s Law, Rate Law, Resonance, Solubility Product, Solutions, The Atom, The Periodic Table, Thermochemistry, Thermodynamics, Titrations

PHYSICS
Applying Newton’s Laws, Archimedes’ Principle, Characteristics of Waves, Circular Motion, Diffraction, Doppler Effect, Electric Circuits, Electricity, Gravity, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Electromagnetism, Energy and Entropy, Fluids, Fluids in Motion, Force and Motion, Friction. Kirchoff’s Laws, Law of Torques, Momentum, Nuclear Reactions, Optics, Projectile Motion, Radioactive Decay and Half-Life, Reflection, Refraction, Snell’s Law, Sound,The Atom, The Critical Angle, Thin Lens, Trigonometry, Weight and Units, Work, Work-Energy Theorem

Our GAMSAT preparation material covers all the knowledge required for the above topics with 1000+ of the highest quality practice questions.

Khan academy is also a great Free resource for people that prefer to learn by watching videos. khanacademy.org

To keep up with the latest GAMSAT tips and strategies like us on Facebook – AceGAMSAT

Happy Studying 🙂

FREE GAMSAT RESOURCES
We offer a free GAMSAT practice Test – Click the link below!

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How Did We Help Hannah Succeed?

 

Section I Sample Unit 1

The passage below is an adaptation of an article published in The Guardian in 2012.

 

Seaweed. Marmite. No, egg whites. Or maybe grilled chicken. Actually, hang on, try a handful of unsalted nuts. No bread though. Bread is poison.

The craving ravings of pregnancy? The menu requirements of a capricious Islington four-year-old? No, it’s the food recommendations of the last month from Closer magazine, which urge us to step away from the carbs and into a happy bubble of seaweed-eating. A New You in which it’s possible to leave behind your sad, lonely bread habit and step into a revitalised Beach Body, achieved through the medium of wakame salads and yoga. I discovered this while on a bus one rainy Thursday afternoon. My inclination to get off and walk was minimal and some kind fellow-traveller had left a copy of the magazine behind. I opened it, and began flicking through. I had no idea who the featured celebrities were, so it was rather like reading someone’s banal telephone conversation. Almost all of the stories could be boiled down to 140 characters, so I began to tweet it with the hashtag #Closer. Kerry is a size 10–12 and so she had weight loss surgery. Now she’s “ecstatic with her new body” was a typical tweet. Taken together, they are a fabulous collection of absurdism.

There is a serious point in among the whimsy, though: stories are not actually about the celebrities. They can be categorised into roughly three groups: bodies, food and relationships. In bodies, we learn that the ideal size to be is an 8. Women who fall below that size are said to be “gaunt”, and are usually mourning the end of a relationship. A 10 is acceptable but usually prefaced with the word “curvy”. Women who are over that size will be dieting, and we will get a run-down of their meal plans, or indeed whether they’re eating at all. If they are over a size 12, then their “pals” are quoted, gleefully telling of how the woman in question cries every night over her size, or is disgusted with herself.

Bodies intersect neatly with food. Carbohydrates are generally considered a bad thing, and menu recommendations inevitably focus on grilled fish or chicken with vegetables or salad. Then there will be one food item which creeps in several times per issue, being hyped either by celebrities or by the magazine itself, the magic weight loss food which will attain you that desirable size 8 figure. It was seaweed in the first issue, Marmite in the next.

More worrying are the constant articles on “baby weight” – the obsession with the perfect and desirable body extends to pregnancy, and I’ve learned through reading these that there is such a thing as a maternity monokini, and also that people plan a birth outfit.
Once they’ve “flaunted” the bump (there’s a lot of flaunting in these mags), given birth while wearing that fabulous birth outfit, they must lose the baby weight. We’re told approvingly that one woman was back to a size 6 two weeks after the birth. Women who don’t lose the weight quickly will “admit” to losing it slowly, and again these horrible “pals” will be quoted saying that the woman in question is distraught by the weight and hint darkly at depression. With friends like that, eh?

Finally, we learn that babies are the pinnacle of any relationship. As soon as a woman celebrity gets a boyfriend, these “pals” are back to tell us that she’s desperate for a baby and feeling broody. She’ll almost certainly be “keen for marriage”, while her new amour is permitted, even encouraged, to relinquish the single childfree life. If a relationship breaks down, it’s somehow a failure on the part of the woman. The sentences “If she loses her looks she could lose everything” and “I have to look as glam as possible because there’s a new man in my life” are typical.

Celebrity news can be entertaining; I’m not scoffing at the lowbrow here and arguing that women should stick to reading Greek mythology in the original, but perhaps it’s time to consider quite how much Marmite and seaweed we can swallow along with the casually oppressive messages about our bodies, our relationships, and ultimately ourselves.

 

1. ‘Capricious’ (line 3) is closest in meaning to which of the following?

  • A      Picky
  • B      Fickle
  • C      Allergy-prone
  • D      Posh

 

2. What is the implication of the writer’s placement of inverted commas around the word “pals”?

  • A      They do not actually exist
  • B      They are not very loyal friends
  • C      The quotes may have been sourced from the subject’s jealous ex-lovers
  • D      It’s a slang word indicative of the type of language used in these types of magazines

 

3. Based on the information provided in the passage we can infer that marriage is portrayed by Closer magazine as:

  • A      a signal of achievement
  • B      a prerequisite of having children
  • C      a moral obligation of loving couples
  • D      a social stigma

 

4. What do the magazines described by the journalist suggest about relationships?

  • A      Their stability is heavily linked to the appearance of the female partner
  • B      They are luxuries reserved for the rich and famous
  • C      They should take precedence over women’s careers
  • D      The couple should share an interest in having babies

 

5. Which of the following presented in the passage is an example of subtext?

  • A      Gourmet food
  • B      Bodies, food and relationships
  • C      Maternity Monokinis
  • D      Greek mythology

Direct message AceGamsat on Facebook for answers and solutions.
https://www.facebook.com/AceGamsat1

UK GAMSAT 2015

The UK GAMSAT will be held on the 9th of September 2015.

Registrations for the UK GAMSAT opened in late May 2015. The fee to sit GAMSAT UK 2015 is £237.50

Registrations will close at Midnight BST 31 July 2015. Late registrations will be accepted until Midnight BST 10 August 2015. A late fee of £60 in addition to the registration fee of £237.50 will be required for late registrations. No further registrations will be accepted after this date.

The UK test centres are located in Cardiff, Bristol, Birmingham, London and Sheffield.

For Candidates in Australia they will be able to sit the test at either Brisbane or Melbourne.

Candidate places at the overseas testing venues are limited and an overseas test levy of £100 applies, in addition to the registration fee.

Select the centre which would be most convenient for you. Register early as Places are limited.

Candidates who have a disability/health related disorder that might interfere with their ability to sit the test should apply for special testing conditions. This is done online via their account right after registration. All requests need to be submitted by no later than Midnight BST 10 August 2015.

After submitting the online form, candidates must also submit supporting documentation. The supporting documentation must be from a registered health practitioner and must give a clear diagnosis and information on the condition, indicate the impact of the condition in testing settings and include a statement as to what accommodations the health practitioner feels are appropriate for the candidate in testing settings.

All supporting documentation must be typed on the medical practitioner’s official letterhead and include the date and title, name, registration number, contact details, and signature of the medical practitioner. The documentation must be no more than one year old for health-related needs or disabilities other than learning disabilities, and no more than three years old for learning disabilities.

Applicants with learning disabilities should submit a copy of an appropriate educational psychologist’s report for consideration. If the report is more than three years old, it will still be accepted, as long as it is accompanied by a recent letter from a psychologist stating that the information in the report is still applicable to the candidate as they are today.

All reasonable efforts will be made to provide appropriate testing conditions for candidates’ needs.

Some examples of conditions and possible accommodations are provided below. These examples are in no way exhaustive and should be used for guidance only. As requests are assessed on a case by case basis; some allowances listed below may not be relevant to a candidate’s personal situation.

  • Diabetes: permission to take blood glucose testing kit, insulin and food/drink into the test centre
  • Hand/wrist/arm/shoulder injury: permission to mark answers in the test booklet and/or scribe provided for written section
  • Hearing loss: candidate seated at the front of the room and written instructions provided
  • Visual impairment: colour or larger print test papers provided

Last note:
Students should make sure they go through and understand all of the questions in SIII of the ACER practice papers. Some questions from the march 2015 GAMSAT exam were directly from the ACER practice material.

Medical Degrees in Australia

Current Australian medical schools and their basic qualifying medical degrees

 

medicine australia

Medicine is a strong sector for Australian higher education, with many of the country’s leading universities boasting a stronger ranking for medicine than in the overall World University Rankings.

The University of Melbourne is ranked 12th in the world for medicine and the University of Sydney is ranked 17th.

The University of NSW is ranked 29th in the world.

Monash University is ranked 33rd and University of Queensland is ranked 42nd.

Australian National University is ranked in the top 100 for medical schools around the world.